Olongapo City Baranggays

Asinan Banicain Barretto East Bajac-Bajac East Tapinac Gordon Heights Kalaklan Mabayuan New Cabalan New Ilalim New Kababae New Kalalake Old Cabalan Pag-asa Sta. Rita West Bajac-Bajac West Tapinac



Before the World War II, Olongapo town proper was situated on the eastern shore of Subic Bay. Right to the town proper was Barrio Asinan, which formerly sat on a swampland. The rise and fall of the tides brought salts that deposited on the edges of the land, therefore, giving rise to the name Asinan.

On December 12, 1941, World War II came to Subic Bay when the Japanese dropped 30 bombs around the Navy yard. Some of the bombs fell on the area of Asinan, where a number of people were wounded. (The Making of Olongapo 1885-1985 by Reynato An. Cabatit, CESO IV, Sanggunian Secretary)

When the Americans decided to expand their space after the war, the town was rushed farther away from the shore of the bay. The area allotted to Asinan was the part nearest to the US Naval facility. In 1958, the barrio was relocated to the relocation site provided by the US Navy. The neighborhood was transferred so that the people in the Old Asinan still found themselves next to each other in the Barangay New Asinan.

Asinan was the first barrio that was rehabilitated after the destruction brought about by the World War II because of its proximity to the US Naval Base. It became the seat of business establishments operated by Chinese residents in the area. Being a business district, several merchants and businessmen from different places in the country concentrated on this place. Residents depended on the employment provided by the commercial and business institutions within the area. Today, residents and people from neighboring barangays and towns depend more on the employment provided by the Subic Bay Freeport Zone.

Asinan Elementary School was formerly located at the Perimeter Road along the river/channel separating the Community of Olongapo from U.S. Naval Base. Formerly, the school building was an improvised edifice- used as a hospital in 1946. Two years later, in 1948, standard-type building was built by the Philippine Government. Being the first school established in the district, there was rapid enrolment during the transition years. To resolve the problem of accommodating the rapid increase in enrollment, the district’s Parent-Teachers’ Association was organized. Through the efforts of the association, additional rooms were constructed in the school building.

Ecological Profile

Geographical Location

Barangay New Asinan is located right outside the main entrance of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone, the former seat of the US Naval Base in the City. It is bounded to the North by a drainage channel that separates the Subic Bay Freeport from Barangay Asinan and the rest of the City proper, to the East by Barangay Pag-asa, to the West by Barangay Banicain, and West Tapinac, and to the South by Barangay East Tapinac. It is divided into nine (9) puroks covering residential and commercial areas.

Topography, Slope and Soil Classification

Barangay New Asinan is one of the smallest Barangays in the City of Olongapo but also one of the busiest being a commercial business district. It has a total land area of 23.98 hectares of which 62.71% is built up area, or 15.04 hectares.

While Olongapo City, as a whole, is characterized by rolling to steep and rugged topography (2001 CLUP, Olongapo City), Barangay New Asinan is generally sloping from of 0 to 2.5%, which makes it attractive for business establishments and for residential sites. The area was assessed as good for urban uses. In the general land use, it is classified as built-up area.

In the basic soil map, soil is classified as San Manuel Silt Loam. The area is subject to occasional flooding. In the hydrologic map, the area is not excluding water at greater depth. Pyroclastic rocks make up the thick confined aquifers. Permeability, a property that can be penetrated by liquid, is low to very low.

There are properties of the soils which make it suitable for diversified crops. The soil is highly suitable for rice crops and tree crops.



Old Barrio Banicain was formerly situated in an area across the sea over-looking the U.S. Navy yard. During the pre-war days, fishing and minute farming were the main sources and means of livelihood of the residents in the barrio. The villagers regularly come to the town of Olongapo in their sailboats to bring their products of firewood, cashew nuts and bananas. Out of their sales they bought pork, beef and other foodstuffs, clothes and shoes to take back home to Barrio Banicain.

When the U.S. Naval base was expanded sometimes in 1948, Barrio Banicain was affected and relocated along the western portion of Barrio West Tapinac. To assist the displaced residents of the Barrio, qounset huts were constructed by the U.S. Navy where the residents were te,mporarily housed. Soon however, the land comprising the barrio was opened for occupancy and those already residing in the place were given preferential right to occupy the area where they had established their homes.

The new site was formerly low and swampy but when the U.S. Naval base officials embarked on a continuous rehabilitation program in Olongapo, the entire place was refilled and elevated, transforming the barrio into a suitable residential place, soon, several employees working inside the U.S. Naval Base preferred to settle in the barrio and built permanent residential houses in the area.

Ecological Profile

Barangay Banicain is geographically located at western part of the city, bounded by West Tapinac, Barangay Asinan, Drainage Channel (boundary between Olongapo City anf Subic Bay Freeport Zone) at the south, on the north by Kalaklan River, on the east by Barangay Kababae. It is the edge or forefront barangay in the west side of Olongapo City. It is purely a residential area and small establishments along Rizal Avenue. Because of its proximity to the Subic bay Freeport, Migrants and transients who are working inside the economic zone are proffered to live in the place.



n the year 1961, by virtue of Resolution No. 35 of the Municipality of Olongapo and duly approved by the Zambales Provincial Board, Barretto was constituted as a regular barrio. (The Making of Olongapo, Cabatit) The Barangay was named in honor of then Zambales Governor Manuel Barretto (1956-1967). This was more than a year after the United States turned over Olongapo to the Philippine Government.

Barangay Barretto was Sitio Maquinaya before the year 1961.

After the brief Filipino-American War, the establishment of local civil governments escalated in the entire country and Olongapo then was a recognized instituted Pueblo or Municipality of Zambales. Its first recorded administration was under Presidentes Municipal Señor Esteban Damaso (1901-1904). The local governance was disrupted in 1912 when Pueblo Olongapo was taken over by the American Reservation Administration. Although under a foreign military government, Pueblo Olongapo and its barrios at the same time were considered as part of the political subdivision of the Municipality of Subic. (Executive Order No.11 February 16, 1912, of the US Governor General William Cameron Forbes. (The Making of Olongapo, Cabatit)) Thus Olongapo was considered as a sub-territorial jurisdiction of Municipality of Subic or an equivalent that of a barrio and Maquinaya as a sitio. The seat of government of Olongapo was in Barrio Matain of Subic town.

The folklore setting behind the name Maquinaya was similar to that of other barangays of Olongapo. The name was always derived from what our colonizers had perceived them to be. Bajac-Bajac was derived from the Spaniards’ apparent pronunciation of the native word “baha”. Cabalan was said to be taken from the understanding of an American soldier (as to the name of the place) who overheard a conservation of Aeta tribes regarding their luggage while evacuating. Then, Maquinaya was said to be derived from the comprehension of an American soldier on the name of the place. From a Filipino phrase, “makina siya” uttered by native Filipinos while amazingly watching an American soldier help pull a huge fishing net, locally called pukot.

Barrio Maquinaya played multifarious functions under the US Reservation Administration. It had been a host to the US Navy’s Supply and Logistic Depot. There was also a sawmill in the barrio supplying the needs of the Navy infrastructures. Its pristine beach area then was said to be frequented by US Navy servicemen for their rest and recreation activities which was called Driftwood.

Ecological Profile


Barretto is approximately 7 kilometers north of Olongapo City proper and the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. It is bounded in the North by Barangay Sto. Tomas and Barangay San Isidro, both in the Municipality of Subic, Zambales; in the East by Barangay Kalaklan, Kalaklan Ridge and Barangay Gordon Heights. In the West it is bounded by Barangay Matain of Municipality of Subic and in the south is Subic Bay. The Barangay local government estimates that 40% of the land area is generally flat and around 60% is sloping — undulating to mountainous.

Stretching in the whole southern part of the Barangay is Barretto’s primary natural asset, the Subic Bay’s beach. Aside from providing environmentally fresh air from the bay, it propels the Barangay’s economic life.

Land Use and Classification

Barretto has a total of 495.70 hectares based on the City Planning and Development Office data. It accounts to 6.71% of the total land area of the barangays in the City and 2.69% of the total land area of the City. The barangay local government estimates that about 45% of the land area is residential, 25% is forestland, 15% is tourism-reserved, 10% is commercial, and the remaining 5% is institutional. The City Assessor’s Office on the other hand, accounts the actual land use in the Barangay at a figure of 582.1 hectares, higher by 86.28 hectares which is worth considering by both the City government and the Barangay. With this figure, 96% of the total is for residential use and only 4% is for commercial use.



Legend. Based on a local historian (Bada), the barangay was named during the Spanish colonization of the area. It was derived from the Tagalog term for flood, baha, spelled in Spanish language as, baja, altering letter h to j. The elders had reputably passed on the folklore that the name started from a love story of a Spanish Guardia Civil and a female native (Indio). According to the tale, it was a rainy season when the female Indio finally fell in love with her Spanish suitor, despite disagreement of her parents. With the continuous rain, the place was flooded and the Spanish soldier was unable to visit her for several weeks.

Thinking her suitor had changed his mind and that being an Indio was unacceptable to the Spanish race, she decided to submit to her parents’ choice of marriage, a close family friend and a fellow Indio. When the flood subsided, the Spanish suitor hastily came back to visit her. That was when he saw her, happy in the company of a fellow native. The climax of the folklore was when the Spanish suitor intended to win again his suitress and kept on telling her, “BAJA - BAJA”, to explain his inability to visit her.

History. “Barangay East Bajac-Bajac lies mainly along the basin of the once known as “Anderson Falls,” on the left side of Rizal Avenue, going north. During the pre-war days, the entire area was swampy and devoid of habitation. Life became active in the place when project houses were constructed by the U.S. Navy that accommodated and housed several employees working at the U.S. Navy Yard during the latter part of 1945. Public market was also constructed and established in the barrio. It was occupied mostly by merchants who peddled their goods and ware on the public market.” (Bada, Cesar Judge, The Genesis of a City, The Olongapo Story, 1980).

East Bajac-Bajac’s status as the current prime business district area of the City was rooted from its historic role as the merchant’s place of destination 60 years ago. Its economic role just started during the US Navy occupation when infrastructure development was initiated in the area. Based on the historian’s account, the place did not physically nor economically gain from the colonization of the Spanish regime. It had maintained its natural marshland environment until the end of World War II.

Ecological Profile


Barangay East Bajac-Bajac is geographically located south-east of Olongapo City. Bounded in the South by a hill naturally separating the City and the barangay from Subic Bay Freeport Zone (SBFZ); in the East is Barangay Old Cabalan; in the North is West Bajac-Bajac, and in the West is Barangay East Tapinac. The City’s largest and main commercial strip, the Rizal Avenue, runs adjacent to the west boundary of the Barangay. It is the Central Business District of the City. The sloping areas are located at Purok 11 to 15. These are places of Little Baguio and Upper Sibol. It is estimated that 15% of the total land area is sloping and is under the classification of alienable and disposable (A&D). The slopes are densely populated with a mix of concrete and makeshift structures. The local government has consistently warned informal settlers who had stubbornly settled at the cliff portion of the hill to vacate the areas classified as landslide-prone area.

Land area and land classification

Barangay East Bajac Bajac has a total land area of 93.5 hectares based on the City’s Land Use Section records. Assessors’ Office, on the other hand, considered the land area to be at 97.675 hectares (CAO 2006 report). Nevertheless, the land areas in the Barangay are all considered as built-up area and comprise 1.36% to 1.42% of the total 6,887.52 hectares of the built-up area of the City. The barangay is subdivided into 14 political administrative areas which are called puroks. There are only three (3) classifications of land in the area: Institutional, Commercial, and Residential. Institutional is defined as a sector that covers the major public and semi-public uses like educational, cultural, religious, health, protective, and government services. Institutional in Barangay East Bajac Bajac is a small portion and is confined in Purok 1, the St Joseph College and Roman Catholic Church, a Mosque, Virgen de los a Remedios College, Metro Subic College, Celtech, East Bajac Bajac Elementary School, three (3) Day Care Centers and the Barangay Hall. Commercial area includes all types of wholesale, retail and service activities serving areas larger than mere neighborhoods. This includes highways, service centers, or commercial strips. Such an area is the whole of Purok 1 and the larger part of Purok 6, 10, and 11. Commercial strip can be located along 18th Street to Harris Street of Purok 2 and 3 and along 20th Street of Purok 4, 5, and 7. Residential, on the other hand, is for dwelling purposes. It comprises the majority of the land area. This can be found in Purok 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, part of Purok 10 and the whole of Purok 12, 13 and 14.



Barangay East Tapinac is one of the progressive barangay because of its proximity to the city proper and to Subic Bay Freeport Zone-SBMA, where industries and establishments generate employments. 70% of the area covered is a haven of business establishments and apartments. In-migration and transients has a greater number compared to other barangays due to its strategic location for job.

The economic boom of Olongapo City created the situation and condition of the Barangay since at the time of the presence of American Military Naval Base. The historic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo on June 19, 1991 and the American Naval Base fall out on November 1992 temporarily displaced the workers and businessmen from their source of living. Others had abandoned their abode and transferred to other places for new opportunity. On that event, population decreased by 50% and the city is like a ghost town of no hope to recover its prestige. opportunity and workplace. The Olongapeños under the leadership of then Mayor Richard Gordon rallied to the National Government for the creation of an Economic Freeport Zone as an alternative to the fall-out or closure of the U.S. Naval Base. While the conceptualization of an economic zone and the process of approval in the legislature House of Representatives, the then Mayor Richard Gordon inspired and lead the people of Olongapo City (Barangay East Tapinac with the leadership of Barangay Captain Benjamin Franco actively joined and participated in this historic event ) called for an action for volunteerism in safeguarding and securing the orderliness of the remaining facilities of the vacated U.S. Naval Base. In 1995, after so many hardship and sacrifices of volunteerism, the struggle had been won and the former naval Base became an Economic Freeport Zone with the creation of Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority, chaired by then Mayor Richard Gordon functioned as the administrative body under the National Government agency.

With the existence of the Freeport Zone-SBMA, Barangay East Tapinac and the whole city flourished its economy and regained its footing as Highly Urbanized Barangay. Since then, Barangay East Tapinac became a modern and complex community and faced its growth and development by installing its every leaders who worked for the betterment and progress of their beloved Barangay East Tapinac. Punong Barangay Benjamin Franco and his Councilors served the barangay and its constituents with all their convictions, dedications and proved their resiliency and perseverance for decades of their leadership. Those who served as barrio officials were Pastor Malicsi designated as Barrio Lieutenant, F. Cruz, L. Adamos, Glecerio Santos, D. Espinoza, R. Siongson, Eladio Acayan, Urbano Rodriguez, Pelagio Javier, A. Ela, A. de Guzman, Salvador Napalan, F. Barbo. A. Pineda, Eliseo Seo, L. Edusada, Mauricio Venegas, Pio de Perio, and Alfredo dela Cruz, Milagros Venegas served as Barrio Treasurer.

Ecological Profile


Barangay East Tapinac is one of the progressive barangay, because of its geographical and strategic location proximity to the city proper and to Subic Bay Freeport Zone-SBMA that generate employments. Barangay East Tapinac is a haven of business establishments mainly in Rizal Avenue and Ramon Magsaysay Drive. Apartments and stores, canteens and alike contributed to barangay’s revenue income.

Mother Tongue

The major dialects spoken in the area are; Yagalog, Ilocano, Zambal, Pampango and Waray. Other are other Visayan dialects, Pangalatok, Bicolano, Maranao.

Land Area

Barangay has the total land area of 42.88 hectares, according to the records, there are 204 persons per hectares in the year 1990 and consistent until the year 1995. According to the CBMS Survey 2008, there re 7181 persons in the barangay in which, there are 167 persons per hectare in the Barangay.



The conception and name of Barangay Gordon Heights was unlike that of other barangays which was based on folklores and legends, customarily accepted and passed on to generations. Its creation and its name was not a myth. Actually, the rationale of its establishment is still very much being felt and seen in contemporary times.

Being a host to the largest United States Naval Base outside its country, its international military conflicts considerably affected the City’s social and economic life. The Subic Bay area took on the task of maintaining warships and providing war supplies, food, and fuel and to sustain the US fleet in the Western Pacific. The late 1960’s to early 1970’s was the height and ebb of Vietnam War. Olongapo then was at its peak as a premier rest and recreation center of US servicemen. Development was unprecedented and the City government’s revenue was said to be comparable to that of major cities in the Philippines.

This development was reciprocated by interest segments of the Philippine population. Topping on the list are the business sector and the unemployed. However there was the consequential problem of development cited by the local historian Bada, in his book, The Making of Olongapo, “Reacting on the problem on squatting and with the concept in mind that squatters should be given lands instead of ejecting them. Mayor Amelia J. Gordon planned on the development of a huge tract of land on the mountainside of the City as a relocation site.”

Thus, the conception of Barrio Gordon Heights started. Republic Act 6199 was enacted and a new barrio was established. Formerly to be part of Barangay Sta Rita then, as Purok 7, Section 1 of the Act articulated that the whole of Purok 7 in Barrio Sta Rita to be separated and be constituted as a distinct and independent barrio of Olongapo City. Thereafter, the 1st Barrio Captain was appointed in 1971, based on the local barangay government’s records and recollection. The 1st election was held on 1st Sunday of January of 1972 and Honorable Manuel Espolong was the 1st elected Barrio Captain, contrary to Bada’s account on the 1st Sunday of January, 1971 wherein Marcelino S. Marcial was the elected Barrio Captain. However, Bada recounted that there were 165 families initially relocated to the new barrio coming from the Perimeter Road (Barangay Pag-asa). As recorded by the Local Government of barangay Gordon Heights, the following residents were the pioneer leaders of the Barangay.

Ecological Profile

Barangay Gordon Heights has a land area of 861.53 hectares or 8.6153 square kilometers and accounts to 11.66% of the total land area of the barangays and 4.67% of the land area of the City. It is bounded at the east, by the City’s main water body, the Mabayuan River stretching at the northeast facing Balimpoyo Ridge. At the west side is Kalaklan Ridge stretching to the north accommodating the barangay’s last village, Purok 13 and at the south of the barangay is Barangay Mabayuan.

The relative vast upland and water formations and vegetation is perceptible once in the barangay. It is worthy to note the need to have an inventory of topographic, local endemic flora, fauna thriving in the area and land formations. These are the natural assets of the Barangay Gordon Heights which is a potential resource generation asset for the local government if innovatively harnessed.



According to the local historian (Cabatit), the first arrival of Spanish colonialist in Subic Bay was in 1866 and was said to have identified the strategic value and geographical importance of the bay. In spite of the opportunity, the intervention of development took only after 19 years by establishing a Naval Port of the Spanish Navy in 1885. In the absence of a native historical records, that period was used as the period of discovery of Olongapo, though understandably, the native community had been long been established in the bay area.

The name “Kalaklan” is said to have been derived from the Filipino word, “kalakalan” meaning trading or commerce. The folklore based the story on the difference in the pronunciation, though it is not specified whether by the foreign traders or by the Spanish colonist. Located at the edge of Kalaklan River traversing to the coastal area of Subic Bay, the area is an ideal place for exchange during the pre-Hispanic period both for foreign and local traders.

During the Filipino-American War, Kalaklan was a historical place where the last stand of defense was put up by Filipino revolutionaries against the vastly superior occupying forces of the United States’ Army and Navy. Less than three months after the popular “mock battle” of Manila Bay against the Spanish Naval Forces, the US Marines led the US Army and Navy to clear the western part of Luzon Island of Filipino revolutionaries on September 23, 1899. Decided to overpower the superior enemy, the revolutionaries managed to acquire possession and operate a huge rifle gun mounted at the northern side of Kalaklan Ridge of the entrance to Fort Olongapo. (Bada) In addition, there were positioned ground defenders in the vicinity of the village of Olongapo armed only with small weapons.

Though at odds, the defense was a display of heroism and determination by the Filipino revolutionaries who would not want another foreign occupation and were envisioned to establish an independent Philippine Government. Without doubt, the defense was inferior. After an initial barrage of cannon fire by warships USS Charleston, USS Concord, USS Montery, and USS Zafiro, landing forces of sailors and marines led by Lt. John D. MacDonald landed at the beach of Olongapo. Without much engagement, the landing activity drove away the ill-armed local ground defenders and the Americans easily seized the rifle guns and blew them up with a guncotton. (Bada)

History tells us that the revolutionaries were straightforwardly repelled. But records show that it took the Americans almost three months before the Stars and Stripes flag was raised in Olongapo. This was at 8:40 am of December 10, 1899.(Bada) With America’s superior forces, it still took three months to waive its own flag and officially declare the area clear of adversaries. This only means that forefathers of Olongapo, despite of their inferior armaments and technologies, fought hard and were not easily defeated.

During the American occupation, Barrio Kalaklan was cleared and developed by the US Navy for the housing requirements of its forces, personnel, and officers stationed in Subic Bay.

Ecological Profile


Barangay Kalaklan is located at the north-western part of Olongapo City. It is bounded at the eastern part by the banks of Kalaklan River adjacent of which are Barangays West Tapinac, Kababae, New Banicain and the part of West Bajac Bajac. In the northeastern part is Barangay Mabayuan, and at the north is Barangay Barretto. The western side is the coast of Subic Bay. At the middle of the barangay is the sloping land area of Kalaklan Ridge estimated to be at 1,000 feet above sea level.

Barangay Kalaklan has a total land area of 750.32 hectares or 7,503,200 square meters subdivided into 6 Puroks. The land area includes almost half of the Kalaklan Ridge from the southern tip up to the northern highland boundaries of the barangay.

Land classification

The barangay’s land area is classified with residential, commercial, institutional, tourism, parks, and forest area. The land use map of the barangay indicates that almost half of its land area is classified as forest. (CLUP 2001) The other half is residential.

The actual use of the land is different. The areas along the national highway traversing from the Kalaklan Bridge to the coastal area are cluttered up with commercial establishments. The classified forest area of the ridge is encroached with residential communities which are part of the jurisdiction of the purok. The tourism area is likewise encroached.

Based on the City Assessors’ records, taxable land accounts only to a total of 3,104,022.80 square meters or 41.37% of the total land area of the barangay. This means that the rest of the land area are not open for any human activity by reason of land use regulations. Residential area comprises almost all of the taxable area at 91.99% or 285.53 hectares.

There are no local inventory of flora and fauna in the barangay. Though for the past few years, sightings of migrating egrets were seen regularly in the Kalaklan Ridge and Kalaklan River. There were neither protection and conservation program but the area is currently being considered for future development projects which are all in a conceptual stage.



The root word of the name Barangay Mabayuan was derived from the Filipino word “bayo”, meaning “to pound”. Hand pounding paddy is the old method of milling rice. The motion of pounding the paddy through the use of a mortar and pestle removes the husk and bran layers. The Barangay was said to be a rice producing area of Olongapo before and until the period of the US Naval Reservation Administration.

Being a rice producing country, the barangay’s popular folklore on its name was not as mythical as compared to other barangays. It was simple, relevant and was plausible. It distinctly identifies the Barangay to be Olongapo’s local rice granary during post World War II era.

Local historian former Judge Cesar Bada, recounted the barangay’s history in his book, The Olongapo Story, that from March to April of the 1957, the mountainous area of Mabayuan was graded and leveled off by the US Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB), popularly known as SEABEES. The area was divided into home lots for displaced residents of Barrio Kalalake, due to the expanding development area of the US Naval Base.

Ecological Profile


Barangay Mabayuan has a total land area of 273.26 hectares and is geographically located at the inner northwestern part of Olongapo City relative to the main central business district area. The barangay seats at the foot of Kalaklan Ridge while Kalaklan River traverses its boundary in the east. With varying maximum elevations of 366 to 594 meters, Kalaklan Ridge starts from the coastline of Subic Bay in the south ascending to the north side of the barangay.

A little more than half or 57.48% of Mabayuan’s land area can be considered as the built up area of the barangay base on the taxable and non taxable inventory of the City Assessor’s Office. The figure could be higher due to unabated upland occupations and encroachment. Overwhelmingly, utilization of the land is of residential at 99.79%. This can be observed from the upland built houses down to the river side. Institutional Land Use can be found mostly along Otero Avenue including Subic Water Filtration Plant, while Electric Power Sub Station Plant is located in Upper Mercurio Street, Mabayuan. A measly 0.21% of the recorded built up area is commercial area.

With its vast upland territorial jurisdiction, there was not much ecological recorded information of the barangay except for the Kalaklan Ridge’s estimated elevation and land area. At the summit of the ridge is a narrow dirt road was said to be used by loggers then, when forest products was abundant.



The most popular folklore tale about the origin of the word “cabalan” is that it was coined from the Filipino word “kaban” uttered by an Aeta settler when asked by an American serviceman what was he carrying while heading to the relocation site. “Kaban” is a wooden box used to keep clothing in the early times. The folklore was not as old as that of other barangays in the City but was said to be significant during the expansion of the US Naval Base in the 1959 Korean War and the relocation of Negrito settlers from the southern part of Boton (a place in the province of Bataan). The relocation area was said to be a forested area in the municipality of Olongapo. The tale implies that it was the American serviceman who named the place.

Another version was that, the name was coined from the Kapampangan word for town mate, “kabalen”, being an adjacent area of Kapampangan-speaking municipalities, Hermosa and Dinalupihan, Bataan, and Lubao, Pampanga.

Nevertheless, on a more factual account, the first Aeta settlers which were composed of three (3) groups, came from the areas of Kalayaan, Boton, and Binictican. The former relocation site is now the Purok 2 of New Cabalan. Then Christians began settling in, among them were the families of Cervantes, Garcia, Calubhay, Medina, and Quiambao who, later on had kinship with some Aeta families. New Cabalan was recognized as a Barangay on April 24, 1971, thru a City resolution upon the recommendation of several Barangay Officials of Olongapo City. The area had developed into a barangay after 12 years, since the relocation period in 1959 from the Boton area.

Ecological Profile

Geographical Location and Land Classification

Barangay New Cabalan is located in the southwestern part of the City. It is divided into seven (7) Puroks and one (1) Sitio with a land area of 1,995.57 hectares. It is bounded in the North by Sta. Rita River, in the South by Jadjad River along Subic Bay Freeport Zone, in the West by Old Cabalan, and in the Eastern part by Dinalupihan, Bataan. New Cabalan is generally an upland area and is estimated to be at 100 to 200 meters above sea level (http://maps.google.com/maps). It is approximately fifteen (15) minutes away from the City proper.

In addition to the river system within the barangay is the Bangal River traversing in the northern part of the barangay, topographically separating Purok 3, 5 and 6 to Sitio Iram and Pinagpala. In the northern outskirt of the barangay towards the East are two (2) creeks, Gugu and Yutang Creek.

There are currently four (4) land classifications in the barangay. Residential is the largest part which is approximately three fourths (3/4) of the land area. The remaining quarter part of the land is comprised of forest zones, parks, institutional, and commercial zones. Purok 4 houses the City’s sanitary land fill surrounded by a land classified as a forest zone. In Purok 6 is the reserved government lot for future park development. Institutional areas are in Purok 2, 3 and 7. These are the New Cabalan Elementary School, New Cabalan National High School, the Barangay Hall, and the Day Care Centers. Commercial area on the other hand is confined in Purok 2.



Barangay New Ilalim, formerly known as Barrio Ilalim before the time of liberation, was a small fishing village situated on an interior site near the sea within the U.S. Naval Base. The area was adjacent to the Bataan Province and was virtually surrounded by densely forested mountains, hence the name “Ilalim” came forth, meaning “underneath”.

When the U.S. Naval Base expanded its territory and facilities because of the outbreak of the Korean and Vietnam War, American officials decided to transfer the Olongapo townspeople to the northern area of the Naval Base which was suitable for relocation of families; therefore, the New Olongapo has emerged. The new era of re-establishment and re-organization of a community was then under the leadership of Filipino politicians. One of the barrio of the new community was Barrio New Ilalim. Since then, the barrio had been developing into an urban area until such a time it became a barangay during the Marcos regime. The growth and progress of the barangay was the concerted efforts of the early barrio leaders of Ilalim.

During the Mt. Pinatubo incident on June 15, 1991, and the closure of the U.S Naval Base on November 22, 1992, the barangay population experienced a rapid decrease. Settlers were forced to evacuate when the catastrophe brought about by the Mt. Pinatubo eruption indicates a long term recovery, and the closure of the US Naval Base put an end to greener job opportunities.

However, after 10 yrs, the displaced employees and workers caused by the withdrawal of the US Armed Forces, and the “evacuees” of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, when settled to different points of the country, flocked again in the City and in the barangay. The City attracted even more people to migrate to Olongapo because of the opening of work opportunities at the Subic Bay Freeport Zone.

Ecological Profile

Barangay New Ilalim has a total land area of 7.71 hectares. Its general land use is for built-up area and so densely built-up for settlement. According to the Topographic Map as of March 2008, the soils have properties favourable for the rated uses. In the Hydrologic Map of 1982, Barangay New Ilalim do not exclude ground water at greater depth. Its soils are made up of pyroclastic rocks which permeability is low to very low. Basic Soil Map shows that the Barangay, as well as the majority of the City built-up area, is made up of San Manuel Silt Loam and is having a slope of 0-25%, and is subject to occasional flooding.

Sta. Rita River, which has 7 tributaries, and Mabayuan River meet at one point and the river is called Kalaklan River. The waters are taking a long course and passing along 5 bigger densely built-up barangays and one lightly built-up before reaching Barangay New Ilalim. The waters that may have reached the barangay must have already accumulated large amount of silt deposits and nutrients from the watersheds and pollutions from the other barangays. Also, as shown in the photo, the river is being abused by encroachments of residential buildings, which is a violation to the Building Code Chapter I, Section 105 (Site Requirements).

The Kalaklan River is the only biological environment serving the barangay as buffer zone. Therefore, its preservation and rehabilitation should not be taken for granted. It is also reported that during heavy rainfalls and mostly accompanied by high tides, the barangay is easily submerged by flooding because the river cannot already contain the amount of water due to siltation and garbage.

Rivers are wealth of a community. They provide the community of a healthy environment. Non–abusive livelihoods can be generated from it and even tourism. The leaders are challenged for this critical task of providing the next generations a wealthy and healthy environment for their well being. NGOs and grants-providing institutions are very much invited to help.



Before the World War II, Barrio Kababae was situated within the US Naval Base Reservation and adjacent to Barrio Kalalake. By the mid 1950s, Olongapo grew rapidly as the military importance of Subic Bay expanded. When the Americans feared that the community would develop out of proportion to the requirements of the Naval Base, United States Navy authorities decided to plan for its development and improvement. Recognizing the threat of Asiatic Communism to Southeast Asia in 1951, they launched tremendous programs of facility construction in Subic Bay. This breakthrough marked the beginning of growth and prosperity for Olongapo. Barrio Kababae, along with the other barrios inside the US Naval Base. Kababae, in its new location, became surrounded by New Ilalim, West Tapinac, and New Banicain. The relocation site was a “latian”, a swampy area. It was developed to make a fitting abode for the reestablishing community which was then given a new name of New Asinan.

Ecological Profile

Barangay Boundary

Barangay New Kababae has a total land area of 11.15 hectares. It is bounded by the Kalaklan River on the north, Barangay West Tapinac on the south, Barangay New Ilalim on the west, and Barangay Banicain on the east. It is geographically located at the western part of the city proper. It is the second smallest barangay in the city which is about one kilometer away from the city proper.

Topography and Soil Characteristics

In the Olongapo City Planning ATLAS, the contour of the area is 0 to 100. Slope is 0 to 2.5% and is subject to occasional flooding. It is revealed in the hydrologic map that the area does not exclude ground water at greater depth. Permeability is low to very low. In the general land use, Barangay Kababae is categorized as built-up area. It is densely built-up for settlement. The soils, having properties favorable for the rated use, are good for urban uses.

Surface area is made up of San Manuel Silt Loam. The soils, though having slight limitations but easy to overcome, are highly suitable for rice crops under simple but good management practices. The soils are also highly suitable for tree crops.



Barangay New Kalalake has its own legend story, but not about masculinity, as the meaning of its root word “lalake” is in the Tagalog language. The Barangay local government, in its published 2008 Comprehensive Barangay Profile, acknowledged that the recognized barangay legend was about giants, which was also derived from the mispronounced root word “lake” , supposedly “laki” or tall. Generations have passed the myth story that there was said to be a giant couple who were lovers living atop a hill in the area.

Except for the giants, there was indeed a hill, actually a plateau, called Kalalake Plateau in the original area of old Kalalake located a few distance from the back of the Kalalake Barrio School (Bada). The school was constructed in 1930. Based on historical accounts, the old community of Kalalake was located in the eastern part of old Olongapo. The western part was the bank of Kalaklan River, and in between was the Tappan Park. The plateau was known to be a “scenic spot famous for its fairy tales” (Bada), before it was flattened by the US Navy as part of its reconstruction program. Historians accounted an extensive clearing and leveling works of hill sides and expansive reclamation activity in the swampy areas paving for a new town site of Olongapo during the post-World War 2 rehabilitation and reconstruction period.

With the advent of the US Naval Base reconstruction and expansion, new employment opportunities and business prospects arose. The old Kalalake community was relocated in a reclaimed land adjacent to Barrio Asinan, thus, the name New Kalalake.

Ecological Profile

There was no known natural ecological formation in Barangay Kalalake except its history that it was before a swampland and was reclaimed during the reconstruction period of post World War II era. The Barangay is mainly a residential and commercial area. It is bounded by the drainage channel flowing to the mouth of Subic Bay along the south and southeast side of the Barangay.

New Kalalake has only 26.44 hectares of land area and accounts to only 0.36% of the total accounted barangay land area of Olongapo City. There is an accounted 7,390.73-hectare land area of the barangays out of the 18,500-hectare land area of the City. At the stretch of the drainage channel in the south edge, lie three puroks, namely: Purok 5, half of Purok 6, and the whole stretch ofPurok 8. The canal likewise extends to the eastern side of the Barangay, bounded by the tip of Puroks 2, 3, and 4.New Kalalake is subdivided by puroks with rectangular shapes parallel to the drainage canal. Each purok has its main street; Irving Street at Purok 1, Jones Street at Purok 2, Kessing Street at Purok 3,Gordon Avenue at Purok 4, Murphy Street at Purok 5, Norton Street at Purok 6, Gatbunton Street at Purok 7 and Rodriguez Street at Purok 8.



The most popular folklore tale about the origin of the word “cabalan” was coined from the Filipino word “kaban” uttered by an Aeta settler when asked by an American serviceman what was he carrying while heading to the relocation site. The referred “kaban” is a chest made of woven dried tropical palm leaves used to keep clothing in the early times. The folklore was not as early as compared to that of other tales of the barangays in the City. This was said to be significant during the expansion of the US Naval Base in 1959 Korean War which is factual and the relocation of Negrito settlers from the southern part of Boton (a place in the province of Bataan). The relocation area was said to be a forested area in the municipality of Olongapo.

Another version of the folklore, was the colloquial use of the word “cabalen” (a Kapampangan term for town mate) by an American serviceman. Aetas were said to be addressing each other as such while heading to the relocation site.

Ecological Profile

With a land area of 1,200 hectares, Barangay Old Cabalan is the third largest among the 17 barangays or 16.24% of all the City’s barangay land area (7,390.73 hectares) and 6.49% of the City’s total land area (18,500 hectares). Generally, Old Cabalan is a mountainous area bounded in the north by Sta. Rita River and in the south by the perimeter fence of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. The eastern part of the barangay is bounded by Barangay New Cabalan and the boundary in the western part is stretched in the following barangays; West Bajac Bajac, Sta Rita and East Bajac Bajac. The Community Environment and Natural Resources Office reports the presence of the following flora species; Banayuyu, Alibangbang, Lipah, Anonang, Ayhip, Binunga, Dalunot, Taek, Gmelina, Hawili, Tipli, Mahogany, Narra, Santol, Bayabeas, Acacia, Eucalyptus, Calamansi, ornamental species, grasses, orchids, vine and fern species.

Surviving wildlife adopts to existing vegetative composition in the area. Fauna species seen or reported existing in the area are reptilian and amphibian species including the Common Tree Frog , monitor lizards, and python. Few avian species were observed and reported. The most common are swift let, swallows, sparrows, maya, pugo, kingfisher, and pipits. Insects were found on the ground or among grasses, shrubs, and trees in the area. These include the ants, butterflies, dragonflies, and grasshoppers . Domesticated animals are raised by local residents as pets, food, or farm animals which include dogs, cats, pigs, goats, chicken, carabaos, horses and cattles.



In 1962, an elite determined group of Olongapo residents, desirous of a piece of land they may call their own, settled on a portion of land in what was known then as “Saluysoy” area, built shanties and lean-to-shelters as temporary dwellings to protect them and their families from the scorching heat of the sun and other elements.

A name was conceived by Cipriano B. Manansala and through the pioneers, spirit spearheaded the petitions of the residents that their place be given a name instead of being branded as “squatter area” by unscrupulous persons and non-residents. Considering that the petition was meritorious and in accordance with Section 3, Republic Act No. 2370, the appointed members of the Municipal Council of Olongapo under Mayor Ildefonso Arriola, then passed and approved resolution No. 10, Series of 1963 and further recommended to the Provincial Board of Zambales the “Creation into a Barrio of a Certain Portion of Saluysoy area Naming the same as “BARRIO PAG-ASA.”

Ecological Profile

Geographical Location

Barangay Pag-asa is bounded on the north by 12th Street, on the south by Magsaysay Drive, on the East by Kalaklan Drainage Channel and on the West by Gordon Avenue (former Law Street.)


The barangay has a total land area of 26.6 square hectares. The place is used to be a dump site but because of the former US Naval Base and then municipal reclamation operation of extending its area by land filling, the area became natural plains that invited residents to construct their residential houses and other dwellings. The area is generally residential, with few business establishments along Gordon Avenue. The wide main roads are either concretely paved or asphalted. The side streets are all asphalted. Due to development vegetation and trees are rare except those that are planted and grew in the residential lots.



According to a local historian (Bada) Barangay Sta. Rita was once a small village considered as a sitio of Barrio Olongapo which was said to be a part of the municipality of Subic. Sta Rita then, was described as an area with “vast rice-fields in the central part while alongside were forested area inhabited by wanderer Aytas.” Barrio Sta. Rita was a big barrio covering portions of the present day Barangay Old Cabalan, Barangay Gordon Heights and Barangay Mabayuan.

Several years after World War II, when Barrio Olongapo was finally turn over to the Philippine government in December 7, 1959 the organization of an autonomous municipal government followed. The succeeding decades saw the creation of new barrios in Olongapo from portions of the sheer size of Barrio Sta Rita thus effectively and geographically govern every part of the municipality. Barangay Gordon Heights was created under the Master Plan of then 1971 Mayor Amelia Gordon. Residents of the southernmost part of Barangay Sta Rita, Purok 7 affirmed the creation of a new barangay, Barangay Old Cabalan in June 28, 1989.

Ecological Profile

At a land area of 1,529.18 hectares, Barangay Sta. Rita is the 2nd largest among the 17 barangays or 20.69% of all the city’s barangay land area (7,390.73 hectares) and 8.27% of the city’s total land area (18,500 hectares). Generally Sta. Rita is a valley, encircled and bounded and by a river the Sta. Rita River and Mount Balimpuyo ridge adjacent to the south of Mount Balakibok. The portion of the ridge that falls within the land area of the barangay is estimated to have a peak of 200 meters (Imagery @2009, Google Earth). At the foot of the ridge is Purok 7, Sitio Tabacuhan

The barangay land elevation is below sea level. Places adjacent to St. Rita is the Sta Rita River in the north, East Bajac-bajac to the east, Barangay Mabayuan and Barangay Gordon Heights to the west and by Barangay Old Cabalan to the south .

Barangay Sta. Ritais classified as a residential area under the land use plan of the city though there are selected portions wherein mixed land used (commercial and residential) was allowed brought about by the rippling effect of the economic activities in the city. A substantial part of the residential land in the area was owned by the Esteban Estate and a few landed families dating way back before the American occupation.

The north-eastern part of the barangay map represents the forested area where the 3 waterfalls and scenery located, including villages of Aytas and some informal settlers subsisting in horticulture and charcoal production. The central part are residential and small scale business establishments occupying along the main roads or streets. The Sta. Rita River is one of the main river that traverse or connects to Kalaklan and Mabayuan River.

There was a number of documented water fall formations in the area by a team of City Planning personnel with the local barangay workers. These were as follows:

  1. Buteg Falls - The name was said to be derived from the Ilocano word of “buteg” meaning, nose’s mucous fluid, resembling the falls to a runny nose.
  2. Martin Falls - The falls was named after an alleged caretaker of the natural formation, “Mang Martin”.
  3. Another water fall formation was documented approximately 8 kilometers from a village of informal settlers, Aeta and non-Aeta alike name Bangka-Bankahan. The water falls has no local name.

In the upland area of the barangay, fauna diversity were randomly observed and was reported to be of few species such as wild boars, wild cats, pythons, wild deer and wild chickens.



Legend. Based on a local historian (Bada), the barangay was named during the Spanish colonization of the area. It was coined after the Tagalog term for flood, baha, spelled in Spanish language as, baja, altering letter h to j. The elders had reputably pass on the folklore that the name started from a love story of a Spanish Guardia Civil and a female native (Indio). The tale highlighted during a rainy season when the female Indio finally fell in love with her Spanish suitor, despite in disagreement with her parents. With the continuous rain, the place was flooded and the Spanish soldier was unable to visit her for several weeks.

Thinking her suitor had changed his mind and that being an Indio was unacceptable to their Spanish race, she decided to submit to her parents choice of marriage, a close family friend and a fellow Indio. When the flood subsided, the Spanish suitor hastily came back to visit her loved one. That’s when he saw her, happy in the company with a fellow native. The climax of the folklore was when the Spanish suitor intended to make up with his suitress and kept on saying to her, “ BAJA - BAJA”, the words he utter to explain his inability to visit her.

History. Not much have been recorded on the history of the barangay , except for the fact relating to the legend that the barangay’’s land characteristic was of a particular type of wetland. Local historians interchangeably used marshland and swamp land to described the area. Nevertheless, either of which was the correct type of wetland, the area would indeed be subjected to flooding. The earliest recorded reference about the barangay by local historians was in 1901, describing the route “Bajac Bajac via Tanauan (Zigzag Road)” as one of the land routes linking Municipality of Olongapo to the province of Bataan. An instance mentioned in local history books about the barangay being West Bajac Bajac was in 1912, when the Barrio Lieutenants League of Subic and Olongapo.

Ecological Profile

Barangay Boundary

Barangay West Bajac-Bajac is geographically located at the central part of Olongapo City. It is bounded by Kalaklan River on the west to northwestern part of the barangay. Sta Rita River on the other hand stretches on the northern part up to northeastern part of the barangay adjacent to Barangay Old Cabalan. At the northern part is Barangay Sta Rita and at the eastern is Barangay East Bajac Bajac. The city’s largest and main commercial strip, the Rizal Avenue runs adjacent to the eastern boundary of the barangay. It is the primary Central Business District of the city. There were no particular natural bodies existing in the barangay, except for the 2 rivers traversing its boundaries from west to northern part.

Land Area and Land Classification

Barangay West Bajac Bajac has a total land area of 64.56 hectares based on the city’s Land Use Section records. The land area in the barangay are all considered as built up area and comprises less than a percent (0.95%) of the total 6,787.62 hectares built up area of the city. The Office of the City Assessor’s pegs the taxable and tax exempt land area of the barangay at 43.86 hectares, lower by 20.7 hectares which is worth considering.

The barangay is subdivided into 6 political administrative areas which are called puroks. There are only three (3) classification of land in the area. Institutional, which is defined as a sector that covers the major public and semi-public uses like educational, cultural, religious, health, protective, and government services. Institutional in Barangay West Bajac Bajac is a small portion and is confine in Purok 3 and 4, the West Bajac Bajac Elementary School, the Day Care Center, Senior Citizen Center and the Barangay Hall. The barangay is a host to the City Halll Complex together with the Rizal Triangle Park. Commercial area includes all types of wholesale, retail and service activities serving Olongapo City consumers. It likewise host Olongapo’s oldest wet market, named today as West Bajac Bajac Public Market.

Majority of the land area, estimated to be at 67.12%, is residential as classified and commercial area is at 30.28%. But on an ocular observation of the area, majority of the land area of the barangay is practically used for trading and commerce. Major thoroughfares are used by delivery trucks for unloading goods and vending activities for ambulant vendors.



During the early years before World War II, Barrio West Tapinac was generally of low elevation and partly submerged in water during high tide as the area is beside the Kalaklan River. Fishponds and nipa palm grooves were common sights in this barrio with very few houses erected on higher grounds.

Before the place was opened by the U.S. Naval Reservation officials for occupancy, the fishponds were refilled with soil while the nipa palms and mangroves were cut and utilized in the temporary houses that were built. After a span of about two years from the time that the entire area was opened for habitation, the temporary houses were demolished by the occupants and bigger houses made mostly of woods and G.I. roofing were constructed.

On the rise and fall of high tide and low tide leaves thick mud and 90% of the area is muddy. From this, the residents branded the barrio as “PINAK” which means always wet, eventually it was named “TAPINAC”. Later on, the Americans divided Tapinac into two, WEST and EAST. The barrio West Tapinac began to be thickly populated so the streets were widened and electric power was installed and supplied the entire area.

Ecological Profile

Geographical Location

Barangay West Tapinac is one of the 17 Barangay of Olongapo City which lies 130km northwest of Manila about a three hour drive along the North Luzon Express Way via Olongapo - Gapan Road.

Land Classification

Being Near the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA) 70 percent of the land is classified as “Residential Areas” and 30 Percent is under the “Commercial Area” category of which most of them are located along Rizal Avenue and the rest are scattered within the Barangay.

During the past years the number of lands being used for residential purpose have steadily grown one factor that contributes to this is the strategic location of the Barangay which is in the heart of the city and near SBMA one factor that contributes to this is the strategic location of the Barangay which is in the heart of the city and near SBMA one factor that contributes to this is the strategic location of the Barangay which is in the heart of the city and near SBMA.